Name

close — close a file descriptor

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>
int close( int fd);
 

DESCRIPTION

close() closes a file descriptor, so that it no longer refers to any file and may be reused. Any record locks (see fcntl(2)) held on the file it was associated with, and owned by the process, are removed (regardless of the file descriptor that was used to obtain the lock).

If fd is the last file descriptor referring to the underlying open file description (see open(2)), the resources associated with the open file description are freed; if the descriptor was the last reference to a file which has been removed using unlink(2) the file is deleted.

RETURN VALUE

close() returns zero on success. On error, −1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS

EBADF

fd isn't a valid open file descriptor.

EINTR

The close() call was interrupted by a signal; see signal(7).

EIO

An I/O error occurred.

CONFORMING TO

SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES

Not checking the return value of close() is a common but nevertheless serious programming error. It is quite possible that errors on a previous write(2) operation are first reported at the final close(). Not checking the return value when closing the file may lead to silent loss of data. This can especially be observed with NFS and with disk quota.

A successful close does not guarantee that the data has been successfully saved to disk, as the kernel defers writes. It is not common for a file system to flush the buffers when the stream is closed. If you need to be sure that the data is physically stored use fsync(2). (It will depend on the disk hardware at this point.)

It is probably unwise to close file descriptors while they may be in use by system calls in other threads in the same process. Since a file descriptor may be reused, there are some obscure race conditions that may cause unintended side effects.

SEE ALSO

fcntl(2), fsync(2), open(2), shutdown(2), unlink(2), fclose(3)

COLOPHON

This page is part of release 3.52 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man−pages/.


  This manpage is Copyright (C) 1992 Drew Eckhardt;
            and Copyright (C) 1993 Michael Haardt, Ian Jackson.

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Modified Wed Jul 21 22:40:25 1993 by Rik Faith <faithcs.unc.edu>
Modified Sat Feb 18 15:27:48 1995 by Michael Haardt
Modified Sun Apr 14 11:40:50 1996 by Andries Brouwer <aebcwi.nl>:
  corrected description of effect on locks (thanks to
  Tigran Aivazian <tigransco.com>).
Modified Fri Jan 31 16:21:46 1997 by Eric S. Raymond <esrthyrsus.com>
Modified 2000-07-22 by Nicolás Lichtmaier <nickdebian.org>
  added note about close(2) not guaranteeing that data is safe on close.